The development of Smart Grid System.
The advancement of technology in the energy sector has caused significant changes to the power grid, such as more distributed generation, increasing role of renewable energy by switching from fossil fuel to renewable sources particularly in the transportation sector. Therefore, MEA has developed the Smart Grid system to balance the system for all sectors, both energy consumers and producers, to have their own management and information linked systems to provide precise power control, and electricity management for both generation sector and consumption sector so that customers will be able to manage their electricity usage to suit their lifestyles and usage habits. Energy storage system was also provided to reduce energy instability issues of some renewable energy power generation systems and to maintain and improve power quality.
The development of Smart Grid system by MEA is in line with the Thailand Smart Grid System Development Policy and Plan of B.E.2558-2579 (2015-2036), supporting strategies and the values of MEA or “CHANGE” with the focus on the benefit to customers. MEA has engaged the cross departmental collaboration and rapidly adjusting work patterns in accordance with technology in order to create new ideas or innovations for use in MEA which every working processes are carried out with transparency and efficiency. The progress of development of Smart Grid systems investment activities in 2021 are as follows:
Monitoring & Control
· Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Energy Management System / Distribution Management System (SCADA/EMS/ DMS)
In 2020, MEA signed the contract of SCADA/EMS/DMS System Replacement Project, which has the modern technology for increasing the control capability of feeder in 12 kV and 24 kV. Furthermore, SCADA/EMS/DMS System makes more efficient control of the system and fixing power outages. There are functions for this system as the following:
1. Real-Time Network Analysis
The Network Analysis functions execute in a sequence referred to as the Real-Time Sequence (RTS). The RTS results allow the user to visualize the current state of the power system, the potential effect of contingencies, and thereby determine if corrective or preventive control action is necessary.
The real-time Network Analysis functions are named as follows, where they are listed in the order in which they normally execute as a part of the RTS: Real-Time Model Update (MU), State Estimator (SE), Bus Load Forecast (BLF), Network Parameter Adaptation (NPA) and Security Analysis (SA)
2. System Load Forecast (SLF)
The System Load Forecast (SLF) function is based on a short-term load forecast model to forecast the total power system load for a variable period from the time of the forecast request. These loads correspond to the HV and MV loads served by the power system network with in all service areas. The load values from SLF are capable of being used to support the Network Analysis functions such as Bus Load Forecast.
3. State Estimator (SE)
The State Estimator (SE) function provides consistent, updated, reliable, and most probable power flow solutions of the HV/MV power system using the current network model of the power system along with real-time status and analog measurements, forecasted and scheduled values, and user entries, which for the MV network is based on an unbalanced three-phase model. Solutions for all observable and unobservable portions of the power system are provided.
4. Network Parameter Adaptation (NPA)
The Network Parameter Adaptation (NPA) function provides and maintain parameters that are not directly monitored.
The forecasting parameters are adapted from the following information sources:
· State Estimator solutions
· Circuit breaker status time and/or load dependencies
· Statistics of monitored real-time parameters
· Bus Load Forecast solutions
· System Load Forecast solutions
· User adjusted parameters via an interface that allows the on-line tuning of power system results by making changes to network characteristics such as those associated with lines and transformers
5. Security Analysis
Security Analysis (SA) function is used to assess the security of the HV power system under specified contingency conditions. Security Analysis provides the capability to evaluate a contingency involving increase or loss of generation or increase or loss of load by generation reallocation in the external network.
6. Fault Location, Isolation, and System Restoration
The objective of the Fault Location, Isolation, and System Restoration (FLISR) application is to improve customer service by minimizing the duration and extent of forced outages due to real-time faults directly affecting the MV power system network. Whenever sustained faults are detected by FLISR, the Dispatchers are notified by a special FLISR “alarm” indication and, upon acknowledgement, taken directly to that part of a schematic or geographical world-map display where the fault has occurred and where the results of any FLISR actions as well as the fault information reported by FRTUs (such as fault current direction) can be viewed. Furthermore, the Dispatchers are able to quickly navigate from this display to the display where the FLISR recommendations can be viewed.
· Load Break Switch/Feeder Remote Terminal Unit (LBS/FRTU)
LBS/FRTU installation and DMS implementation in industrial estates Project. Since industrial estates have a large number of industrial plants, the industrial sector is one of the key mechanisms that will lead Thailand in the national development and enhancement of the country’s strong and sustainable competitiveness. MEA, therefore, initiated this project to increase the stability and reliability of the electricity system with the aim of reducing the downtime of electricity supply continuity. In 2020, the installation of LBS / FRTU was expanded to MEA district offices in 18 areas, including important industrial estates, in which LBS/FRTU was tested in connection with the DMS system to monitor and remotely control LBS/FRTU. The installation of LBS/FRTU equipment in Ladkrabang, Bang Plee, Asia and Bang Chan Industrial Estates have been completed.
· Smart Metro Grid Project consists of the data analytics application projects as follows:
1. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Project
This project comprises the replacement of existing mechanical and electronic watt-hour meters by smart meters and the installation of communication links among them. It thus allows automatic reading of energy usages and also facilitates the energy management inside the customers’ premises. A total of 33,265 sets of smart meters have been purchased for the Smart Metro Grid Project. Besides, there were also the installation of smart meters that have already been installed from the other projects such as the Smart Meter Installation Project for Customers Category 3, 4 and 5 of 8,250 sets, the replacement of Time of Use Energy Metering (TOU) by Smart Meter Installation Project of 14,981 sets. When combined with the Smart Metro Grid Project, the number of smart meters in MEA’s service area will cover 56,496 customers. MEA can retrieve data from these smart meters to perform Data Analytics to determine energy loss, in both Technical Loss and Non-Technical Loss, electricity theft, and for planning purposes to expand or improve the power grid. In 2020, MEA installed 6,182 sets of Smart Meter completely.
2. Transformer Load Monitoring (TLM) Project
This project is the distribution transformer load monitoring system applied to optimize usage, analyze its performance and alert the malfunctioning of distribution transformers.
3. Outage Management System (OMS) Project
This system is applied to manage customer outage by analyzing the electrical interruption data from various equipment in the distribution system, either in the substation or in the feeders, via the SCADA/EMS/DMS information system. These data when combined with those from smart meters will help to quickly resolve the electrical interruption. The system also integrated high-voltage, medium-voltage and low-voltage data to enhance electrical interruption correction to an Advanced DMS.
4. Load Aggregator Management System (LAMS) Project
This system is the management system that facilitates MEA to act as a load aggregator. This project is aligned with government policy on Demand Response to manage electricity demand in metropolitan area. Its task is in co-operation with EGAT’s Demand Response Control Center (DRCC). The ultimate goal for this project is to reduce maximum demand by 100 MW in MEA service area Including helping defer the investment of generation plants.
5. ICT Integration Project
This project integrates an information and communication technology to improve communication and exchange of information between various work systems used within MEA such as the existing systems, SCADA/EMS/DMS, ERP, Geographic Information System (GIS), Smart Life Application and Systems in Smart Metro Grid Project. The security standard is benchmarking against NERC CIP enabling organizations to plan, prevent, detect and respond to threats in a timely manner.
· Smart Energy Data Analytics Center project
This project is a data analysis center that collects all Smart Meter data from customers equipped with Solar PV and charging stations connected to MEA distribution grid. It will be able to provide results online, analyze electricity consumption and forecast future energy usage trend of Renewable Energy and charging station. These data will be also used in electricity management system.
· Implementation of Grid Code improvements
Due to the increase of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) penetration to distribution system, MEA needs to review and revise its grid code in order to allow the electricity producers connected to the distribution system with high security, safety and stability.
· The pilot project of MEA Microgrid System
1. Smart District Phase 2
It is the expansion project of Smart District Office which used 30 kWh/125 kW of Energy Storage System (ESS) by adding 1 set of 500 kWh/300 kW of Energy Storage System to back up load of the whole building. As well as to monitor real-time and control of microgrids in service areas for supporting micro grid systems and future expansion of alternative renewable energy. There are functions for this system as the follows: Peak shaving function, Load leveling, PV smoothing and Voltage Control Function.
2. Metro Micro Grid
It is the project for installation of 1.8 MWh / 1 MW medium voltage energy storage system at waste to energy power plant to back up load of the surrounding area. Also, it makes a balance for generation system and reserve power system when outage or peak load period. There are functions for this system as the following: Black start function, Peak shaving function, PV Smoothing function, Load Shedding, Frequency Control function, Voltage Control Function and Energy management/ Load forecast/Generation forecast.
· Energy Storage System Pilot Project
1. Pathumwan substation
It is the project for installation of 1.2 MWh/ 2 MW medium voltage energy storage system. There are two functions for this system: Load Leveling for reducing maximum demand and Back Up to always support power demand and electric energy in the event when the main grid is temporarily down. This could help to maintain stability and reliability of power system. The energy storage system is installed at PM26 feeder of Pathumwan substation with an aim to accommodate the rising trend of renewable energy in the distribution system.
2. MEA Building at Bangpood Sub-district, Pak Kret District, Nonthaburi
It is the project for installation of 300 - 1,000 kWh/500 kW of Energy Storage System (ESS) including installation of 500 kWh of Solar rooftop at MEA factory. There are functions for this system as follows: Load Leveling, Peak Shaving, Capacity Firming, Back-up Power or Spinning Reserve, Demand Response, Power Quality Improvement and Energy Arbitrage.
· The pilot project of Building Energy Management System connects MEA’s office with the Smart Grid System (BEMS/FEMS with DR).
The objective is to ensure that the Building Energy Management System (BEMS) complies with demand response of the load control prototype for air conditioning in the building. It also helps to reduce the demand for electricity (Negawatt) during peak time thus curtailing the need to building new power plants to support peak demand. The project was completed in September 2019 at the Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Rat Burana District. At present, MEA has expanded the project to in 2 district offices of MEA, namely the MEA Klong Toei District and MEA Bang Khunthian District.
· The pilot project to increase injection of Renewable Energy to On-Load Tap Changing distribution transformer at SENA Village
The project is implemented to develop and improve the power grid to support Renewable Energy penetration by installing one set of 500 kVA onload tap changing (OLTC) distribution transformer in SENA Park Villa, RAMINTRA village. The OLTC mechanism will allow an efficient control of voltage level in low voltage distribution system to meet the MEA standards.
With greater awareness of the escalating energy crisis and environmental issues, energy and environmental conservation have therefore become important missions for MEA to continue to work together and cooperate with other agencies, both in public and private sectors, to develop and expand the use of renewable energy as follows:
· Electricity purchase from Waste-to-Energy plants
Following the Power Development Plan: PDP2018 to promote the generation of electricity from waste incineration and the purchase of electricity generated from municipal solid waste (MSW). In 2020, MEA has prepared the Grid Capacity data to allow for network connection in its distribution area. This leads to the electricity purchase from 4 Waste-to-Energy plants namely Nong Khaem, Bang Pu Mai, Racha Thewa and Praksa Mai with an installed capacity of 22.34 MW and contracted capacity of 19.6 MW. It is expected that in 2020, there will be additional electricity from waste injected into the grid from 2 projects with the capacity of 8 MW.
· The Household Solar Scheme
MEA has driven the government’s policy to pilot the purchase of electricity from the household solar scheme by opening for online applications from
residential customers in MEA’s distribution area via the website below. Application period started from May 24, 2019 until the amount of 30 MW is taken up. The purchase price is 1.68 baht/unit. In 2020, the MEA signed the purchase contract with 770 participants (4.2 MW) which 292 participants (1.6 MW) already started its operation (COD).
· The community power plant project for the foundation economy
Following the government policies of electricity, the framework of the Thailand Power Development Plan 2018-2037 (PDP2018), there is a target to purchase electricity (1,933 MW) from the community power plant project, including focusing on the production of electricity in the community according to the potential of clean energy fuel available in the area. Furthermore, people are able to access to the power of electricity thoroughly and gain a reasonable price. Therefore, MEA opens an application for very small power producers (VSPP) who are interested in participating in the project via the website below by divided into two groups namely Adder/FiT and Self Consumption, which are as shown on the table:
· MEA EV Application
To facilitate electric vehicle users, MEA developed “MEA EV”, an application on both iOS and Android operating systems to meet the modern city lifestyle. The application has two channels (Web application and Mobile application) and helps to locate charging stations of MEA and Electric Vehicle Association of Thailand (EVAT), along with direction to the charging station on GIS maps in conjunction with Google Application navigation. The application can also reserve charging stations, operate and monitor the status of electric chargers in power stations or charging stations registered with MEA. There are currently 15 charging stations in operation and there are plans to expand the charging stations to serve in MEA’s distribution area.
· MEA Open Smart Charging Platform
MEA Open Smart Charging Platform is an energy management system within charging stations for electric vehicles by responding to power demand in real time through automatic control of increase or decrease of the current of each charger within the stations so as to be suitable for the dimension of electrical equipment, power demand management, stabilization of power distribution system, resulting in maximum efficiency in engineering and economics. MEA has developed MEA Open Smart Charging Platform by expansion and linking data system of MEA On-line Load Monitoring (MEA-OLM) project and Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) and Management System project. This innovation in 2018 is intended as a tool for stabilizing the power distribution system and is used to further support the related business operations of MEA and charging station operators for electric vehicles.
· Various projects related to Electric Vehicles
Currently, 15 charging stations have been installed in MEA’s service area and 51 chargers are operating within MEA. In this regard, a pilot project on Smart Charging was launched to manage the distribution transformer loads and chargers at various areas namely.
1. 16 chargers in MEA district offices in 18 areas.
2. 4 chargers at 7-11
3. 2 chargers at Dhanarak Asset Development Co., Ltd.
4. 2 chargers at THER Condominium (LADPRAO 93)
5. In the process of purchasing 18 Normal chargers for installation in MEA district offices in 18 areas.
6. In the process of purchasing 9 Quick chargers for the replacement of old chargers.
The memorandum of understanding (MOU) on preparation of EV Chargers installation for MG’s customers in accordance with the government policy to encourage the use of electric vehicle in Thailand.
Furthermore, MEA has collaborated with many partner companies, which are as follows: EA ANYWHERE, CPALL, Nissan, Mitsubishi, EVAT, DELTA and THER
· A regulation for EV Charging station connecting to grid and the installation of EV Charger
Following the government’s policy driving an electric vehicle (EV), as a result, MEA has attempted to develop the regulation for EV Charging station connecting to grid and the installation of EV Charger. Since 2017, MEA has formally published the regulation for EV Charging station connecting to grid and the installation of EV Charger to support the government’s policy and ensure people use electric vehicle.
· A research of MEA EV Smart Charing System Project
In 2020, MEA supported the government and private sector who were interested in participating in the research of MEA EV Smart Charing System Project. The purpose of this project is to support the installation of charging station and support people to use Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). MEA would support 50 free charging stations with 2 years warranty. who interested could enroll via the website below.
MEA has created the risk management guideline, which was reviewed in response to both internal and external changes, used as practice guideline both at the organization and operational levels, and demonstrated the linkage between the risk management and other work processes as well as published within the organization through the Risk Management Department’s website.
MEA has developed an information system, MEA GRC, a system that integrates related tasks, consisting of 3 modules: risk management module, internal control module, and internal audit module by collecting risk information to be a database for analyzing historical data and forecasting possibilities and potential impacts in the future as well as monitoring the progress of the risk management plan on a monthly/quarterly basis, being enable to monitor and control the performance of the risk management plan effectively.
Moreover, MEA give priority to an information security management system (ISMS) by implementing ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standards to manage an information security including requirements and risk assessment to prevent problems from the use of incorrect information systems and being threatened by various threats both inside and outside the organization.
In addition, the operational risks have been monitored and reviewed according to changing situations and factors which might affect business operations. Which are categorized as follows:
· To change overhead lines into underground cables
The Replacement of Overhead Lines by Underground Cables Project is the long-term project that requires a large amount of investment, which is important and has impact on many groups of stakeholders. Therefore, there is a need for continuous risk management by following the operation of integrated construction plan with external organizations, which has prepared a memorandum of agreement to establish a working group for the construction integration of The Replacement of Overhead Lines by Underground Cables Project between MEA and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration in order to reduce process and time for coordination as well as increase operational efficiency. In addition, MEA added channels for reporting risks that may affect the construction of overhead lines into underground cables, the status and obstacles of the project to the team in the department to make decisions and solve any problems that may arise as well as the ability to adjust the operation plan in a timely manner. In addition, knowledge will be collected to solve problems and obstacles, and to be used in process improvement for other projects.
· Risks related to information technology system security
The current advancement of information technology systems has led MEA to adapt to digital operations by increasing the proportion of information technology systems usage to address constraints in conventional operations and improve process to meet the needs of electric customers that may increase the likelihood of risk on attack on the security of information technology systems. In particular, data exchange or access to more IoT (Internet of Thing) devices that will be used in the future such that adequate security must be provided because external devices cannot be thoroughly secured, and it is also used as an attack target to interfere with core systems. Therefore, MEA has to prepare by increasing preventive measure both cyber and physical attacks, installing Security Operation Center (SOC) system to prevent and detect internet and email threats, and raise awareness among employees as well as develop Information Security and Communication Security Policy Improvement Plan for IoT in Distribution Systems by establishing MEA Computer Security Incident Response Team (MEA CSIRT) to formulate Incident Handling Flow that may arise, including the appointment of a working group to review / revise the security policy and standards for information and communication technology systems for IoT in the distribution system to study information and related standards for application, and improved the policy and guidelines on MEA information security to cover more IoT technology systems. In addition, the group also participated in field exercises at the Army Cyber Center, Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, to develop competency and train the coordination of both passive and proactive cyber warfare with the personnel of the Army Cyber Center, the Threat Enforcement Agency, and the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII).
· Risk related to electricity system stability
The MEA has continuously created the stability of the power system in order to create reliability and satisfaction for the customers. Therefore, data is collected and analyzed to assess risk of vulnerable point in the power system that came from various causes such as substation equipment, threats, etc., and have a handling guidelines by developing the preparation plan in case of power failure in large area in response to incidents. MEA has reviewed the maintenance plan of the relevant substation and expedited the maintenance of electrical equipment of the substation, including a comprehensive emergency plan in case of equipment failure to cover every case, and the maintenance plan for transformer and power distribution equipment, monitor substation improvement task as well as consider to improve efficiency and productivity of the power distribution.
Security and privacy of customer data
· No data leaks due to theft or loss of customer information.
· No complaints from the organization’s stakeholders, including regulators, which are confirmed by the organization.
Information technology system plays a key role in driving MEA to upgrade its services to international level and being a digital organization in line with the government policy and lifestyle of urban people who want convenience and speed. However, the rapidly evolving information technology system causes corporate information management system to be exposed to the risk of cyber threats such as corporate data breaches, theft of customer data, etc. Furthermore, nowadays the government policies place greater emphasis on the development of information technology system, together with information security. Besides, the customers are more aware of and pay attention to the handling of privacy and personal information, making information security management a key issue in services and maintaining confidence. Therefore, MEA strictly complies with legal requirements, regulations and standards on the protection of customer personal information so as to ensure that there will be no risk of customer privacy information leaks.
· International standard ISO / IEC 27001: 2013 (Information Security Management System Standard) or ISMS (Information Security Management System)
· Regulations of the Prime Minister's Office on National Cybersecurity Preparation Committee 2017
· MEA Strategy: Strategy 4 (Enabler)
· Establishment of information security policies and practices.
MEA has formulated 6 related policy elements, including
1) policy on access control and use of information systems
2) policy on creating backup system of information system
3) policy on information check and risk assessment
4) policy on information security management and raising awareness about information security
5) policy on computer network resource management and information systems
6) policy on preventing threats to computer network and information systems.
· Measures to control the operations of departments and employees
· Quality hardware and software supply for use in the organization
· Plan to manage the continuity of information technology system regarding Discontinuance of Information Technology System) and leaks of customer privacy information (Customer Privacy)
Operati onal guidelines
· Pr ocess of formulating data quality control measures and information technology system
MEA has used the approach based on ISO / IEC27001: 2013 standard which emphasizes 3 main principles, namely Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability, together with analysis of the risks of information technology system and important information so as to set measures / plans, indicators for managing the use of accurate, reliable, timely, secure and confidential information for current and future needs in response to government policies and corporate strategies. Additionally, in order to ensure information security of MEA, a plan is available for checking and assessing information risks annually.
Examples of measures for managing quality and security of information and knowledge of MEA
· Features of hardware and software
Formulating and operating through information management process to provide reliable, secure and easy to use hardware and software with selection criteria according to world-class international standards, including established indicators and target of quality control of hardware, software system. The performance has been in line with the target.
· Building awareness of employees
MEA established a plan and conducted activities to raise awareness of information technology security in the organization of the year 2019 for employees to acknowledge the policy, laws and practices on information security and understand various threats hidden through the Internet and e-mail, along with promotion of IT Security Awareness through the following activities.
1. Training, education
Organizing training and seminar activities to raise awareness about the safe use of information system by requiring the trainees to have at least 100% of the training period and have the results of knowledge, understanding evaluation not lower than 80%. The target groups cover senior management, employees of all work groups and contracted employees.
2. Dissemination of technical knowledge, news and advice
Organizing activities to educate people about the laws, protection against technological threats and the use of social media in daily life as follows.
Customer Empowerment & Satisfaction
MEA initiated new projects to meet the needs and enhance satisfaction of customers. The examples are as follows.
Smart Service Highlights
· MEASY (pronounced M-EASY) system provides the various types of service including register for security deposit refund, getting electricity for a newly person, changing meter size, temporary meter cut off and reconnection request via the website below.
· MEA Smart Life Application is an application, which includes all electrical services and connects to MEASY system to check load profile and electricity bill including be able to pay the electricity bill via credit card. Moreover, this application can inform outage and message to the customer.
· Omni Channel service development plan to connect all MEA channels, including Metropolitan Electricity Authority Districts, Application or Website to be the same platform
· E-service / Digital system development plan for electricity consumer service, including Smart service station. The service process has been designed toward Digital Service and Back Office system has been streamlined to be Automate Process so as to meet the needs of customers and society that is moving towards the digital age in 2 pilot areas, viz. Metropolitan Electricity Authority Thonburi District and Ratburana District.
· For customers in industrial estates, MEA has developed, improved electricity quality and services through Service Package Project or MEA Now Project with the development of MEA Ambassador to be able to reach service users in industrial estates and potential customers more effectively.
· For related business customers, Web application development plan is available, which enables customers to track the progress of transactions more easily.
Additionally, MEA reviewed and revised the customer service process. The examples of major operations of Business and industrial customers are as follows.
Access to information of customers and people
Currently, the lifestyle of customers and people in urban society requires convenience and speed, including the need for timely and equitable access to information. MEA is an organization that operates power system with an aim to improve the quality of life of stakeholders equally. Therefore, MEA cares about the presentation of information about the organization's products / services, important news, including information on the efficient and safe use of electricity in line with the Life-style and the differences in access of stakeholders.
· Operation in accordance with the approach for communication and dissemination of government information such as the Official Information Act 1997, Ministerial Regulations prescribing the rules, methods and conditions for accessing and utilizing information, communication, telecommunication service, information and communication technology, communication facility technology and public service for the disabled 2011, etc.
· W3G's WCAG 2.0 standard from the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society.
MEA has disseminated news information with care to all stakeholders. In 2018-2019, the model, channels and the content of disseminating news as well as useful knowledge of electricity were reviewed and developed through various activities and channels. The examples are as follows.
MEA has identified the organization’s stakeholders through organizational assessment process according to criteria of State Enterprise Performance Appraisal (SEPA). The results of consideration have revealed 7 groups, namely customers, people, policy regulators, main suppliers, trade partners, cooperation partners and employees. MEA focuses on listening to the voices of all stakeholders equally by adhering to the principles of fairness, equality and examination of various benefits other than protection of basic rights so as to know the needs and the issues emphasized by stakeholders.
Customer engagement is a major element that allows the organization to understand the expectations / needs of people related to the organization holistically. This enables the organization to establish operational guidelines that take into account positive and negative impacts and prevent the potential risks from the treatment of customer correctly and comprehensively. MEA has created engagement with customer through various channels and has responded to. The operational results are as detailed below.